A Public Resource Compiled by the

New Zealand: Animals

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HIGHLY REGULATED

All types of gene editing regulated as GMOs.

All gene editing techniques are considered genetic modification and are tightly regulated. New Zealand has adopted a wait-and-see-approach with regard to updating regulations to address gene editing, monitoring how other countries, especially those New Zealand exports to, decide to regulate.

Gene edited animals are regulated by the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA), which oversees the development and release of GMOs under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act 1996. All gene editing techniques are regulated even if they are not transgenic (do not incorporate foreign genes). In 2018, the Environment Minister, along with researchers, called for an update to the HSNO Act, arguing that there is no clear path to market for any gene edited animals and that New Zealand is in danger of falling behind other countries in genetic engineering and technological advancement.

No gene edited animals have been approved and no applications for a full environmental release have been received by the EPA.

Products/Research

  • Hypoallergenic milk: Researchers at the New Zealand research institute AgResearch used a gene editing technique called TALENs to genetically edit cattle without the major milk allergen.
  • Daughterless mice: Researchers from Australia and the US, in conjunction with the non-profit organization Island Conservation, are developing mice edited to only allow them to have male offspring, which could drive down the mice population in New Zealand quickly.

Regulatory Timeline

2019: New Zealand’s Opportunity Party releases a new policy on genetic modification that would de-regulate gene edited organisms when no new genetic material is added.

2018: The Royal Society of New Zealand, a nonprofit science advocacy group, releases a discussion paper “exploring the potential uses of gene editing for the primary industries” in New Zealand.

2017: The Royal Society of New Zealand creates a gene editing panel to facilitate discourse and research surrounding gene editing technologies.

2016: The New Zealand government decides in 2016 that all gene editing techniques would be considered genetic modification.

2016: The Prime Minister announces Predator Free 2050, a program to eradicate rats, stoats, and possums from New Zealand by 2050.

2013: High Court of New Zealand rules that organisms created using ZFNs should be considered GMOs and regulated as such.

2001: The New Zealand government establishes the Royal Commision on Genetic Modification to “look into and report on the issues surrounding genetic modification” In New Zealand. Their conclusion is a “proceed with caution” approach.

1996: The Environmental Protection Authority releases the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act 1996, establishing regulations for the creation and release of non-native (GM or otherwise) organisms into New Zealand.

NGO Reaction

Environmental advocacy groups including Greenpeace, Center for Food Safety, Environmental Working Group and Friends of the Earth Australia, have taken the stance that gene editing is just the newest version of transgenic modification (GMO 2.0), arguing that gene editing has not been tested enough for safety and could lead to unintended side effects.

Additional Resources

Click on countries (eg. Brazil, US) or regions (eg. European Union) to find what agricultural products or therapies are approved or in development and their regulatory status.

Hotspots Background

European Union

EUROPEAN UNION

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 

Gene Drives

 

Brazil

BRAZIL

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 

Gene Drives

 

New Zealand

NEW ZEALAND

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 

Gene Drives

 

United States

UNITED STATES

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

Australia

AUSTRALIA

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 

Gene Drives

 

Canada

CANADA

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

China

CHINA

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

United Kingdom

UNITED KINGDOM

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

Israel

ISRAEL

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

Argentina

ARGENTINA

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

Japan

JAPAN

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

Mexico

MEXICO

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

Russia

RUSSIA

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
- Crops / Food
- Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
- Therapeutic / Stem Cell
- Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

ARGENTINA

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

AUSTRALIA

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 

Gene Drives

 

BRAZIL

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 

Gene Drives

 

CANADA

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

CHINA

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

EUROPEAN UNION

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 

Gene Drives

 

ISRAEL

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

JAPAN

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

MEXICO

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

NEW ZEALAND

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 

Gene Drives

 

RUSSIA

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
– 
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

UNITED KINGDOM

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives

 

UNITED STATES

 

Agricultural Gene Editing
Crops / Food
Animals

 

Human Gene Editing
Therapeutic / Stem Cell
Germline / Embryonic

 
 

Gene Drives